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Zoology, or animal biology, is the field of biology that involves the study of animals. The word zoology comes from the Greek words zōion, meaning “animal”, and logos, meaning “the study of”. It encompasses all aspects of scientific knowledge about animals, like embryonic development, evolution, behavior, ecological distribution, and classification. Zoology is broken into many branches because there are so many different ways to study animals; it is also broken into branches based on which animals are being studied.
History of Zoology
People have been interested in learning about animals since ancient times. The prominent ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle took detailed notes on animal observations, and inspired other scientists for many hundreds of years. Many universities were founded in Europe in the 16thCentury, and by the mid-17th Century, divisions were founded in universities that focused entirely on animal research.
In the 19th Century, the microscope became commonplace in scientific research, and this opened up a whole new realm of possibility; now, the cells of animals could be studied at the microscopic level. Another breakthrough in zoology occurred when the naturalist Charles Darwin developed the theory of evolution by natural selection. This theory revolutionized zoology and taxonomy (classification). More recently, the discovery of DNA as life’s genetic material led to even more new research and knowledge about the natural world and the evolutionary relationships between animals.